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LISTENING

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Questions 1-9

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Question 10

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Questions 11-13

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Questions 14-20

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Questions 21-25

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Questions 26-30

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Questions 31-33

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Questions 34-40

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READING

 

Snow-makers


Skiing is big business nowadays. But what can ski resort owners
do if the snow doesn't come?

A In the early to mid twentieth century, with the growing popularity
of skiing, ski slopes became extremely profitable businesses. But
ski resort owners were completely dependent on the weather; if it
didn’t snow, or didn’t snow enough, they had to close everything
down. Fortunately, a device called the snow gun can now provide
snow whenever it is needed. These days such machines are standard
equipment in the vast majority of ski resorts around the world,
making it possible for many resorts to stay open four months or
more a year.
В Snow formed by natural weather systems comes from water vapour
in the atmosphere. The water vapour condenses into droplets,
forming clouds. If the temperature is sufficiently low, the water
droplets freeze into tiny ice crystals. More water particles then
condense onto the crystal and join with it to form a snowflake. As
the snowflake grows heavier, it falls towards the Earth.
С The snow gun works very differently from a natural weather system,
but it accomplishes exactly the same thing. The device basically
works by combining water and air. Two different hoses are attached
to the gun, one leading from a water pumping station which pumps
water up from a lake or reservoir, and the other leading from an air
compressor. When the compressed air passes through the hose into
the gun, it atomises the water - that is, it disrupts the stream so that
the water splits up into tiny droplets. The droplets are then blown out
of the gun and if the outside temperature is below 0°C, ice crystals
will form, and will then make snowflakes in the same way as natural
snow.
D Snow-makers often talk about dry snow and wet snow. Dry snow
has a relatively low amount of water, so it is very light and powdery.
This type of snow is excellent for skiing because skis glide over it
easily without getting stuck in wet slush. One of the advantages of
using a snow-maker is that this powdery snow can be produced to
give the ski slopes a level surface. However, on slopes which receive
heavy use, resort owners also use denser, wet snow underneath the
dry snow. Many resorts build up the snow depth this way once or
twice a year, and then regularly coat the trails with a layer of dry
snow throughout the winter.

E The wetness of snow is dependent on the temperature and humidity
outside, as well as the size of the water droplets launched by the
gun. Snow-makers have to adjust the proportions of water and air in
their snow guns to get the perfect snow consistency for the outdoor
weather conditions. Many ski slopes now do this with a central
computer system that is connected to weather-reading stations all
over the slope.
F But man-made snow makes heavy demands on the environment.
It takes about 275,000 litres of water to create a blanket of snow
covering a 60 x 60 metre area. Most resorts pump water from one or
more reservoirs located in low-lying areas. The run-off water from
the slopes feeds back into these reservoirs, so the resort can actually
use the same water over and over again. However, considerable
amounts of energy are needed to run the large air-compressing
pumps, and the diesel engines which run them also cause air
pollution.
G Because of the expense of making snow, ski resorts have to balance
the cost of running the machines with the benefits of extending
the ski season, making sure they only make snow when it is really
needed, and when it will bring the maximum amount of profit in
return for the investment. But man-made snow has a number of
other uses as well. A layer of snow keeps a lot of the Earth’s heat
from escaping into the atmosphere, so farmers often use man-made
snow to provide insulation for winter crops. Snow-making machines
have played a big part in many movie productions. Movie producers
often take several months to shoot scenes that cover just a few days.
If the movie takes place in a snowy setting, the set decorators have
to get the right amount of snow for each day of shooting either
by adding man-made snow or melting natural snow. And another
important application of man-made snow is its use in the tests that
aircraft must undergo in order to ensure that they can function safely
in extreme conditions.

Questions 1-5
Reading Passage 1 has seven paragraphs A-G.
Choose the correct heading for each paragraph from the list of headings below.
Write the correct number (i-x) in boxes 1-5 on your answer sheet.

i Considering ecological costs  
ii Modifications to the design of the snow gun 
iii The need for different varieties of snow 
iv Local concern over environmental issues
V A problem and a solution
vi Applications beyond the ski slopes
vii Converting wet snow to dry snow
viii New method for calculating modifications
ix Artificial process, natural product
X Snow formation in nature

example answer
Paragraph A V
Paragraph B X
Paragraph C
Paragraph D
Paragraph E
Paragraph F
Paragraph G

Questions 6-8
Label the diagram below.
Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 6-8 on your answer sheet.

678

Task: Sentence completion
In sentence completion tasks, the sentences focus on key information from part
or all of the passage. The answers will be in the same order as the information in
the text. Questions 9-13 below focus on just one part of the passage.
1 Look at Question 9 and underline the key words. Scan quickly through the
passage to find a paragraph with this information.
2 You need to find information about wet snow. Look through the paragraph for
this. What expressions in the paragraph have a similar meaning to busy slopes
and increase?
Now do Questions 10-13 in the same way. When you find the answer to each
question, write the number of the question beside it in the margin of the text.

Questions 9-13
Complete the sentences below.
Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 9-13 on your answer sheet.

9 Dry snow is used to give slopes a level surface, while wet snow is used to
increase theon busy slopes.
10 To calculate the required snow consistency, the and
of the atmosphere must first be measured.
11 The machinery used in the process of making the snow consumes a lot of
which is damaging to the environment.
12 Artificial snow is used in agriculture as a type offor plants in
cold conditions.
13 Artificial snow may also be used in carrying out safety checks on